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Thesis Store Soweto

By the end of ww2, johannesburgs black population had increased to 395,231, with a male to female ratio of nearly 21. Although some units were built on a short-term basis, they were experimental in nature and suffered from some notable technical and planning flaws. This legislation was repealed in 1983 and is now generally considered to have failed, for although it probably retarded urban drift, it did not altogether stop it.

There is no doubt that the question of land ownership was a major issue in the housing of black workers. The planning of soweto incorporated a number of important features. Although apologists for the compound system have pointed out at great length the advantages of living in such communities, it is evident that, almost from the beginning, this programme gave rise to a number of social problems.

Biermanns knowledge of the cape vernacular is evident from the plan of the average soweto house, a four-roomed unit which resembled a double- pile lang huis. In spite its final location in proximity to johannesburg, the nationalist government never intended soweto to be anything other than a temporary dormitory suburb. By 1907 nearly 58,000 chinese were working on the mines.

However uitlander grievances fell upon deaf ears in pretoria and little could be done during the hostilities. A number of other areas were also considered to be slums by public officials. This allowed the authorities to resettle the bulk of johannesburgs black community to the klipspruit health camp where water and sewage facilities were readily available.

Not only did it conform to existing zar policies, but the idea of separate residential areas for black and white also suited the mining companies who had recently adopted the compound as a means of housing their black labourers. It is true that outbreaks of bubonic plague had taken place elsewhere in southern africa before this time. For the same reason, residents of these areas were also not permitted to gain ownership of their properties.

By the 1980s the suburb had entered into a process of renewal as many of its older parts were slowly being upgraded or rebuilt. Predictably a riot did eventually occur in august 1947 when municipal offices were attacked and threewhite policemen were killed. The planning of later complexes, which could house up to 5000 workers each, was amended to a fan-shaped pattern, with buildings radiating out from a central access point. By 1930 large extensions had been made to western native township, and the new suburb of eastern native had also been established. The removal of indian families from pageview only served to aggravate this situation.


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Thesis Store Soweto

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JOZI - A HISTORY OF BLACK JOHANNESBURG. Franco Frescura. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. Before 1822 the indigenous population of the Highveld is estimated to have numbered some 150,000, many of whom lived in large settlements of up to 7000 persons.
Thesis Store Soweto The planning of later complexes, Suburbs were laid out to create neighbourhoods, and green areas and civic spaces were integrated into the overall plan. In 1973 the west rand administration board (wrab) took over the control and day-to-day administration of soweto from the johannesburgs nead. Each was destroyed in its turn, willfully and systematically, by a governmental bureaucracy bent upon breaking down existing social structures and democratic political movements. The 1974 census established that the black population of johannesburg was 741,094 persons, but officials have admitted that, Although some units were built on a short-term basis. Liberal commentators have pointed out, By the 1980s it had undergone extensive redevelopment and has since been incorporated into a wider grouping of coloured suburbs, including bosmont, newclare. The intention here was to locate police stations and nests of machine-guns at the hubs in order to control any potential civil insurrections (pers com, 1966). Thus the reservation of prime business and residential land for the exclusive use of whites became a political issue at an early stage of the towns history.
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    Wrabs refusal to conduct, or even condone, maintenance work upon their own houses. Even then it was becoming obvious that the urban planning concepts being applied to the black residential sector would have to undergo serious reevaluation in order to separate them from their historical racist and separatist intent. It also meant that the needs of education would henceforth also have to be taken into account when planning for the infrastructural needs of the black community. A third indian or, more likely malay, community also made their homes immediately to the north and west of the brickfields. The zars subsequent imposition of a hut tax forced many rural residents to enter into white employment and the colonial cash economy.

    Resettlement was therefore used as a political weapon, deliberately dispersing neighbourhood units and support groups, separating families and neighbours, as a means of maximising the shocks of removal and dispossession. In later years it was to become known as pageview, although most johannesburg residents knew it as vrededorp or, more simply, as vietas. The people of klipspruit were not alone in this plight and generally very little was done by the authorities of early johannesburg to improve the housing conditions of black workers (illustration 11). In 1902, for example, the total black population on the rand was 64,664, of which only 7615 were women. Considering the rudimentary methods of waste disposal available there, and the clay nature of the soil, it did not take long for a serious health hazard to develop.

    The removal of indian families from pageview only served to aggravate this situation. It is not known whether the last two also included chinese in their definition. This is an agency funded by the private business sector for the specific purpose of conducting housing and development work in black urban areas. The character and demographic composition of this suburb changed considerably between 1900 and the 1960s, when its original malay residents slowly gave way to indian, and predominantly muslim families. Although, in time, these areas developed a predominantly white, working class character, their indian residents managed to retain their homes until the 1980s. Given the segregationist mind-set of most people at that time, it would not have concerned them over-much that the towns southern areas were remote and not as comfortable as their northern counterparts. After 1963 municipal housing activities in soweto began to wind down and after 1969 these came to a virtual standstill. Ultimately it proved to be a purely prohibitive measure which did nothing to promote a parallel programme of rural development, or to encourage farmers to remain on their land. The walls were 150mm wide, usually constructed out of cement-ash blocks laid on a minimal 75mm concrete foundation, and roofed over with asbestos-cement fibre corrugated sheeting. Almost inevitably these have also become permanent in nature and, in time, have degraded to the point of becoming unfit for habitation.

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    It is credible that, in time, many workers began to bring their families to the town. By the 1980s the suburb had entered into a process of renewal as many of its older parts were slowly being upgraded or rebuilt. Early maps of johannesburg show its locations to have been sited on the outskirts of white-designated suburbs, on land commonly known as brickfields (illustration 1). Wrabs continued use of former municipal liquor outlets and beer halls as a means of funding the implementation of an apartheid infrastructure (illustration 17). It was initially implemented for security reasons on the kimberley diamond fields, and was used to confine employees to their quarters for the duration of their labour contracts Buy now Thesis Store Soweto

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    The immediate effect of the native building workers act was the formation of a housing division within the city council. No matter how overcrowded facilities have become in the city, these were deemed to be preferable to the poverty, squalor and even starvation of a rural and overcrowded homeland. Thus although the 1925 figures showed the presence of 117,700 men as against 19,000 women, it is probable that there were far more black women in johannesburg than was officially indicated. Following these events, the residents of brickfields were moved to a health camp near the klipspruit sewage farm, present-day kliptown, some 20km from the town centre. The prevention of illegal squatting act was the first of over one hundred pieces of similar legislation designed to give local authorities the means of removing homeless families from land the native building workers act authorised the utilization of skilled black labour on low-income housing schemes Thesis Store Soweto Buy now

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    However, by the end of ww2, the housing shortage was again reaching such proportions that it was not uncommon to find dwellings so overcrowded that one family was being accommodated in each room. However, by 1976, housing had, once again, become a major political issue in johannesburgs lack community. Therefore official emphasis was still upon the provision of single sex compounds, rather than in the construction of family homes. This scheme is recorded to have suited some elderly persons wishing to retire on pension, but few others are known to have availed themselves of this opportunity. Wrabs refusal to conduct, or even condone, maintenance work upon their own houses.

    Thus the planning and implementation of urban housing programmes in johannesburg after 1945 had to take into account the existence of an expanding and permanent urban black population Buy Thesis Store Soweto at a discount

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    However it does not appear to have been involved in the plague scare eight years later. The next emergency, therefore, began to focus upon such issues as access to land, and the redistribution of resources, thus being part of a wider social and political debate having implications for south africa as a whole. A number of other areas were also considered to be slums by public officials. Thus overcrowded housing conditions did not become a deterrent to urban migration but were stoically accepted as unavoidable components of daily urban life. Between 19 johannesburgs black population grew by 59 to a total of nearly 400,000.

    Early buildings were set about a central square accessed through a single gateway Buy Online Thesis Store Soweto

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    The services available to this community remained rudimentary for many years, affecting its quality of life. Over the years the quality of life available to residents in these areas has become a matter of some debate. In 1894, during the planning stages of vrededorp and the nearby malay location, for example, president kruger is reputed to have slashed the size of plots down to 250 sq ft, claiming that calderwoods work for the nbri in the early 1950s was therefore designed to meet such governmental standards and, ironically, formed the basis for nationalist housing policy right up to the mid-1980s. By the time gold was discovered on the witwatersrand in 1886, their nearest homesteads were located 110km away, near rustenburg Buy Thesis Store Soweto Online at a discount

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    Each was destroyed in its turn, willfully and systematically, by a governmental bureaucracy bent upon breaking down existing social structures and democratic political movements. The subsequent development of an industrial and mining belt along the reef also made it sensible to erect any new worker housing south of this line. By the 1980s it had undergone extensive redevelopment and has since been incorporated into a wider grouping of coloured suburbs, including bosmont, newclare, coronationville and claremont. Although indian families were at first unwilling to relocate to this remote location, government pressure and decreasing residential options in central johannesburg ensured the gradual development of lenasia Thesis Store Soweto For Sale

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    Many of the black residential areas closest to white suburbia have undergone radical change since the 1950s. During the early 1980s conditions regarding the construction of privately funded housing were relaxed, allowing banks and building societies to enter the black housing market. It is true that these informal settlements gave rise to some of this countrys most notable black poets, writers, artists, singers, musicians and political leaders. Each was destroyed in its turn, willfully and systematically, by a governmental bureaucracy bent upon breaking down existing social structures and democratic political movements. By the time gold was discovered on the witwatersrand in 1886, their nearest homesteads were located 110km away, near rustenburg For Sale Thesis Store Soweto

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    By the time gold was discovered on the witwatersrand in 1886, their nearest homesteads were located 110km away, near rustenburg. The growth and development of soweto may be summed up by the tabulation below. The walls were 150mm wide, usually constructed out of cement-ash blocks laid on a minimal 75mm concrete foundation, and roofed over with asbestos-cement fibre corrugated sheeting. Thus the planning and implementation of urban housing programmes in johannesburg after 1945 had to take into account the existence of an expanding and permanent urban black population. The remainder had to make do as best they might, and although some people worked and slept over in the white suburbs, few could claim a home of their own Sale Thesis Store Soweto

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